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120 An Introduction to Folk Music in the United States
The relationship of music to other aspects of culture is discussed from various points of view in the following: George Herzog, "Music in the Thinking of the American Indian," Peahody Bulletin, May, 1938, pp. 1-5, and "Plains Ghost Dance and Great Basin Music," American Anthropologist, XXXVII (1935), 403-419; David P. McAllester, Enemy Way Music (Cambridge, Mass., 1954); and Willard Rhodes, "Acculturation in North American Indian Music," Sol Tax, ed., in Acculturation in the Americas (Chicago, 1952)» Willard Rhodes, "North American Indian Music, a Bibliographic Survey of Anthropological Theory," Notes, X (1952), 33-45, classifies the many ways in which Indian music has been approached.
The ballad texts are listed, described, and annotated in four standard bibliographic works: Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads (5 vols, in 3; New York, 1957); Tristram P. Coffin, The British Traditional Ballad in North America (Philadelphia, 1951); Malcolm G. Laws, Jr., Native American Balladry (Philadelphia, 1951) and American Balladry from British Broadsides (Philadelphia, 1957).
A large number of printed collections are available; only a few are mentioned here, some of which contain material outside the Anglo-American tradition, particularly Negro folk songs: Benjamin A. Botkin, The American Play-party Song (Lincoln, Neb., 1937); Byron Arnold, Folksongs of Alabama (University, Alabama, 1950); Phillips Barry, Fannie H. Eckstrom, and Mary W. Smith, British Ballads from Maine (London, 1929); Samuel P. Bayard, Hill Country Tunes (Philadelphia, 1944), a collection of fiddle and fife tunes; Arthur Kyle Davis, Traditional Ballads of Virginia (Cambridge, Mass., 1929); Helen H. Flanders, Ancient Ballads Traditionally Sung in New England (4 vols., Philadelphia, I960-); Emelyn E. Gardner and Geraldine J. Chickering, Ballads and Songs of Southern Michigan (Ann Arbor, 1939); George PuUen Jackson, White Spirituals of the Southern Uplands (Chapel Hill, 1933); George Korson, Coal Dust on the Fiddle (Philadelphia, 1943); John A. and Alan Lomax, Cowboy Songs (New York, 1938); Vance Randolph, Ozark Folksongs (Columbia, Mo., 1946-50); Franz Rickaby, Ballads and Songs of the Shanty-Boy (Cambridge, Mass., 1926); Ruth Crawford Seeger, American Folk Songs for Children (New York, 1948); and the most important, Cecil J. Sharp, English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians (London, 1932).
Much has been published in the way of criticism, analysis, and theory. Only a few items, indicating the diflFerent directions of research, are given here: Phillips Barry, Folk Music in America (New York, 1939); Samuel P. Bayard, "DecHne and Revival of Anglo-American Folk Music," Midwest Folklore, V (1955), 69-77, and "Prolegomena to a Study of the Principal Melodic Famihes of British-American Folk Songs," Journal of American Folklore, LXIII (1950), 1-44, both of which approach the entire body of Anglo-American folk music and treat it as a musical unit; Bertrand H. Bronson, "The Morphology of the Ballad Tunes," Journal of American Folklore, LXVII