Folk Music in The United States


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Bibliographical Aids                                                                119

Primitive music has fared better, for there are several general accounts which cover all of the world's areas. Marius Schneider, "Primitive Music," in vol. 1 of the New Oxford History of Music (London, 1957) and Bruno Nettl, Music in Primitive Culture (Cambridge, Mass., 1956) illustrate two opposing viewpoints. Several books by Curt Sachs contain large sections on primitive music which show a third approach and tie their subject matter to European cultivated music in a unique way: The Rise of Music in the Ancient World (New York, 1943); Bhythm and Tempo (New York, 1953); and World History of the Dance (New York, 1937), which also, of course, discusses the relationship of primitive music to the dances of non-Western cultures.

Theories on the origin of music, relevant to a study of primitive music, are discussed in Siegfried Nadel, "The Origins of Music," Musical Quarterly, XVI (1930), 531-546, A survey of primitive and folk instruments is included in Curt Sachs, The History of Musical Instruments (New York, 1940).

Chapter III Alan P. Merriam, "Music in American Culture," American Anthropologist 57:1173-78, 1955, surveys briefly the imique structure of our musical life. Alan Lomax, The Folk Songs of North America in the English Language (New York, 1960) is mainly a collection of songs but includes important introductory comments about the nature of American folk music.

Chapter IV

Several survey studies of North American Indian music have been published. Helen H. Roberts, Musical Areas in Aboriginal North America (New Haven, 1936) and Bruno Nettl, North American Indian Musical Styles (Philadelphia, 1954) are the most recent. Among the collections of music without musicolological discussion are The Indians' Book by Natahe Curtis-Burlin (New York, 1907) and the many books by Frances Densmore pubhshed by the Bureau of American Ethnology. The most important of Densmore's books are Chippewa Music (Washington, 1910); Choctaw Music (1943); Northern Ute Music (1922); Fapago Music (1929); and Teton Sioux Music (1918). These also represent five distinct musical styles.

Among the studies of individual tribes, styles, and aspects of Indian music, the following are representative: ABce C. Fletcher, The Hako (Washington, 1904); George Herzog, "A Comparison of Pueblo and Pima Musical Styles," Journal of American Folklore, XLIX (1936), 283-417, and "The Yuman Musical Style," Journal of American Folklore, XLI (1928), 183-231; David P. McAUester, Peyote Music (New York, 1949); Bruno Nettl, "Musical Culture of the Arapaho," Musical Quarterly, XLI (1955), 325-331, and "The Shawnee Musical Style," Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, IX (1953), 277-285; Helen H. Roberts, Form in Primitive Music (New York, 1933); and Edward Sapir, "Song Recitative in Paiute Mythology," Journal of American Folklore, XXIII (1910), 455-472.

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