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THIS BOOK was written with the purpose of bringing a species of folksong into the field of scientific observation and presenting it as fit material for artistic treatment. It is a continuation of a branch of musical study for which the foundation was laid more than a decade ago in a series of essays with bibliographical addenda printed in the New York "Tribune," of which journal the author has been the musical reviewer for more than thirty years. The general subject of those articles was folksongs and their relation to national schools of composition. It had come to the writer's knowledge that the articles had been clipped from the newspaper, placed in envelopes and indexed in several public libraries, and many requests came to him from librarians and students that they be republished in book-form. This advice could not be acted upon because the articles were mere outlines, ground-plans, suggestions and guides to the larger work or works which the author hoped would the be the result of his instigation. Folksong literature has grown considerably since then, especially in Europe, but the subject of paramount interest to the people of the United States has practically been ignored. The songs created by the negroes while they were slaves on the plantations of the South have cried out in vain for scientific study, though "ragtime" tunes, which are their debased offspring, have seized upon the fancy of the civilized world. This popularity may be deplorable, but it serves at least to prove that a marvellous potency lies in the characteristic rhythmical element of the slave songs. Would not a wider and truer knowledge of their other characteristics as well lead to the creation of a better art than that which tickles the ears and stimulates the feet of the pleasure-seekers of London, Paris, Berlin and Vienna even more than it does those of New York? H.E.K 1913
Afro-American Folksongs, Index Page
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|Title Page PREFACE PREFACE PREFACE PREFACE PREFACE PREFACE PREFACE PREFACE CONTENTS CONTENTS Chapter I Folksongs in General, The Characteristics of Folksongs.—Folksongs Defined.—Creative Influences.—Folksong and Suffering. —Modes, Rhythms and Scales.—Russian and Finnish Music.—Persistency of Type.—Music and Racial Ties. —Britons and Bretons. - 0101 Page - 0102 Page - 0103 Page - 0104 Page - 0105 Page - 0106 Page - 0107 Page - 0108 Page - 0109 Page - 0110 Chapter II. Songs of the American Slaves, — Originality of the Afro-American Folksongs.—Dr. Wallaschek and His Contention.—Extent of the Imitation in the Songs.—Allusions to Slavery.—How the Songs Grew.—Are They Entitled to be Called American.—The Negro in American History. - 0111 Page - 0112 Page - 0113 Page - 0114 Page - 0115 Page - 0116 Page - 0117 Page - 0118 Page - 0119 Page - 0120 Page - 0121 Page - 0122 Page - 0123 Page - 0124 Page - 0125 Chapter III. Religious Character of the Songs, The Paucity of Secular Songs among the Slaves.— Campmeetings, "Spirituals" and "Shouts."—Work-Songs of the Fields and Rivers.—Lafcadio Hearn and Negro Music.—African Relics and Voodoo Ceremonies. - 0126 Page - 0127 Page - 0128 Page - 0129 Page - 0130 Page - 0131 Page - 0132 Page - 0133 Page - 0134 Page - 0135 Page - 0136 Page - 0137 Page - 0138 Page - 0139 Page - 0140 Page - 0141 Chapter IV. Modal Characteristics of the Songs, An Analysis of Half a Thousand Negro Songs.— Division as to Modes.—Overwhelming Prevalence of Major.—Psychology of the Phenomenon.—Music as a Stimulus to Work.—Songs of the Fieldhands and Rowers. - 0142 Page - 0143 Page - 0144 Page - 0145 Page - 0146 Page - 0147 Page - 0148 Page - 0149 Page - 0150 Page - 0151 Page - 0152 Page - 0153 Page - 0154 Page - 0155 Chapter V. Music Among the Africans, The Many and Varied Kinds of African Slaves.— Not All Negroes.—Their Aptitude and Love for Music. —Knowledge and Use of Harmony.—Dahomans at Chicago.—Rhythm and Drumming.—African Instruments. - 0156 Page - 0157 Page - 0158 Page - 0159 Page - 0160 Page - 0161 Page - 0162 Page - 0163 Page - 0164 Page - 0165 Page - 0166 Page - 0167 Page - 0168 Page - 0169 Chapter VI. Variations from the Major Scale, Peculiarities of Negro Singing.—Vagueness of Pitch in Certain Intervals.—Fractional Tones in Primitive Music.—The Pentatonic Scale.—The Flat Seventh.— Harmonization of Negro Melodies. - 0170 Page - 0171 Page - 0172 Page - 0173 Page - 0174 Page - 0175 Page - 0176 Page - 0177 Page - 0178 Page - 0179 Page - 0180 Page - 0181||Page - 0182 Chapter VII. Minor Variations and Characteristic Rhythms , Vagaries in the Minor Scale.—The Sharp Sixth.— Orientalism.—The "Scotch" Snap.—A Note on the Tango Dance.—Even and Uneven Measures.—Adjusting Words and Music, - 0183 Page - 0184 Page - 0185 Page - 0186 Page - 0187 Page - 0188 Page - 0189 Page - 0190 Page - 0191 Page - 0192 Page - 0193 Page - 0194 Page - 0195 Page - 0196 Page - 0197 Page - 0198 Page - 0199 Chapter VIII. Structural Features of the Poems. Funeral Music, Improvization.—Solo and Choral Refrain.—Strange Funeral Customs.—Their Savage Prototypes.—Messages to the Dead.—Graveyard Songs of the American Slaves. - 0200 Page - 0201 Page - 0202 Page - 0203 Page - 0204 Page - 0205 Page - 0206 Page - 0207 Page - 0208 Page - 0209 Page - 0210 Page - 0211 Chapter IX. Dances of the American Negroes, Creole Music—The Effect of Spanish Influences.— Obscenity of Native African Dances.—Relics in the Antilles.—The Habanera.—Dance-Tunes from Martinique - 0212 Page - 0213 Page - 0214 Page - 0215 Page - 0216 Page - 0217 Page - 0218 Page - 0219 Page - 0220 Page - 0221 Page - 0222 Page - 0223 Page - 0224 Page - 0225 Page - 0226 Chapter X. Songs of the Black Creoles, The Language of the Afro-American Folksongs.— Phonetic Changes in English.—Grammar of the Creole Patois.—Making French Compact and Musical.—Dr. Mercier's Pamphlet.—Creole Love-Songs. - 0227 Page - 0228 Page - 0229 Page - 0230 Page - 0231 Page - 0232 Page - 0233 Page - 0234 Page - 0235 Page - 0236 Page - 0237 Page - 0238 Page - 0239 Chapter XI. Satirical Songs of the Creoles, A Classification of Slave Songs.—The Use of Music in Satire.—African Minstrels.—The Carnival in Martinique.—West Indian Ptllards—Old Boscoyo's Song in New Orleans.—Conclusion.—An American School of Composition. - 0240 Page - 0241 Page - 0242 Page - 0243 Page - 0244 Page - 0245 Page - 0246 Page - 0247 Page - 0248 Page - 0249 Page - 0250 Page - 0251 Page - 0252 Page - 0253 Page - 0254 Page - 0255 Appendix of Ten Characteristic Songs 157 - 0257 Page - 0258 Page - 0259 Page - 0260 Page - 0261 Page - 0262 Page - 0263 Page - 0264 Page - 0265 Page - 0266 Page - 0267 Page - 0268 Page - 0269 Index - 0271 Page - 0272 Page - 0273 Page - 0274 Page - 0275 Page - 0276|