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mouthpiece. As you practice, you will learn to breathe in
accordance with the length of each phrase you have to play.
You should breathe often, but at the right places, after one
musical phrase is finished and before the next one starts. Don't
try to play as long as you actually can on one breath.
The best way to gain good tone production is to play sus-
tained notes, holding them as long as your breath comes freely.
Making the Notes
The different notes in the scale are made on the trumpet or
cornet by a combination of two things (1) the valve or valves
you press down with the fingers of your right hand and (2) the
manner in which you blow or more properly "tongue" into the
Fig. 82 shows the range of the instruments, which is from
F# below the middle C to C two lines above the staff, and
shows which valves to press to make each of the notes. Some
of the notes have the symbol O printed over them and this
means an open tone played without pressing down any of the
Notice,that the same valves or combinations of valves are
used to produce more than one note. Thus, there are six open
tones—notes made with none of the valves pressed down.
These notes range from middle C up through G, C, E and G to
the high C. Then there are six notes made by pressing down
the first valve-the low A# or Bb, F, the next A# or Bb, D, F
and the high A# or Bb. The same is true of other notes. You
make the higher notes by tightening the lips and. using quicker,
more forceful tonguing.
When you play the lower notes, your lips should be fairly
relaxed and not too tightly pressed together. There should be
no great effort when you breathe into the mouthpiece and pro-
nounce "tu". Take it easy.
Start with middle C and with G on the second line of the
staff. These are open tones and fairly easy to produce. When
you can make them clearly, try the other notes just above and