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62 THE CONSONANTS.
found that any obstruction in the nose, such as a bad cold, which cuts off the nasal resonance, transforms M and N into B and D, and at the same time muffles every vowel sound.
Exercise I.—Sing the M, the N, and the NG sounds on each note of the scale.
Exercise II—Sing the M sound, followed by each vowel sound in turn on each note of the scale.
76. The Non-voiced Labial P.—Similar position to M the lips should be lightly but firmly closed, holding the breath behind them; the tongue should be quite flat, its tip against the lower teeth; the teeth should be close together. To make the sound, open the mouth quickly and allow a smart emission of breath to escape.
The real difference between P and B and M is that in the two former the soft palate is higher and so prevents the passage of so much air through the nose. P is also unvoiced.
The painted pomp of pleasures proud parade.
The Voiced Labial B.—Exactly the same position of the organs as P, with vibration of the voice added. The breath is probably not so strongly held back by the closed lips in B as in P. The vibration slightly precedes and is present at the actual opening of the mouth, but must be discontinued directly the air passes through the opening, otherwise a vowel sound will be added.
Black bubbling brooks break brawling o'er their bounds.
77. The N Sound.—The N sound is nasal. The air is stopped from passing out of the mouth by the tongue being brought into contact with the whole of the hard