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60 THE CONSONANTS.
the prolonged hissing sounds so frequently heard in the teacher's voice.
A daily practice of the following exercises will create a clear, distinct, and accurate consonantal utterance:—
74. Articnlatory Exercises.—Exercise I.—Whisper loudly the voiced sounds of all the voiced consonants each ten times:
B, V, D, Th, Z, Zh, G.
Exercise II.—Whisper loudly the sounds of all the breath consonants each ten times :
P, F, T, Th, 8, Sh, K.
Exercise III—Whisper loudly the above sounds quickly one after the other in the order given, first the voiced sounds in Exercise I., and then the unvoiced sounds in Exercise II.
Exercise IV.—Add the vowel sound Ah (a:) to each of the consonants. Be careful to open the mouth well and smartly after each consonant, and to control the breath.
(a) Repeat each sound ten times :
(b) Repeat sounds quickly one after the other in above order, with a distinct interval between each for a short but smooth inspiration.
75. The M Sound.—The M sound is so purely nasal and vocal that it may be called a nasal vowel. It can be prolonged to any extent and can be sung up and down the scale like a vowel sound. It is produced by the vibrating air (the voice) being focussed in the nose; its passage through the nose being unobstructed it answers to the definition of a vowel; it can be prolonged like other vowel sounds. The other nasal sounds are N and NG.
The position of the tongue is the same as for Ah (a:), that is the tip should be kept just behind the lower teeth,