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THE ARTICULATOR? APPARATUS.
vowels such as i: e, and e: and bach vowels such as 0: 0: and u:
40. Movements of Mouth.—The front and sides of the mouth are formed by the lower jaw, and the teeth, the cheeks, and the lips (cf. Fig. 16 : CH, Muscles of cheek; O, Muscles of lips). By the movement of the lower jaw and the lips the shape of the mouth can be changed in a variety of ways; each change modifies the sound. The jaw can be moved by its muscles independently of both the tongue and the lips; if, while vocalising, the tongue and lips are kept quiet and the lower jaw is slowly allowed to fall downwards by its own weight, a continuous change of sound is noticeable. If the lips are moved in and out, rounded or flattened while the jaw and tongue are still, more changes of sound are produced.
The mouth is the most important articulatory organ, since it can produce an infinite number of different sounds by the movement of its different parts; these movements combined in different degrees account for the peculiarities of the characteristic sounds noticeable in the various languages and dialects of the world.
41. The Nose.—The nose is a large and complicated resonance chamber situated between the hard palate and the base of the brain, its walls are composed of thin bony plates and cartilages (Fig. 16). It extends from the face to the pharynx, and is three inches long, two inches high, and rather more than an inch wide, including the septum, which divides it into two parts down the centre. Two openings can be seen in front leading into each division, and there are two corresponding openings at the back about as large as the terminal joint of the thumb. Inside, attached to the outer walls, are three hooked-shaped bones