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almond oil, or a notched almond may be used. The G string may be cleaned with spirits or by rubbing with fine (No. 1) glass paper. The encrustation of resin upon the surface of the strings may be removed with spirits, observing that nothing drops upon the upper table, to injure the varnish.
To keep the neck quite smooth it may be occasionally rubbed with pulverized pumice stone put into a little muslin bag.*
The dust that accumulates inside the violin may be removed by warming some very fine gravel or grains of wheat, and throwing them inside. The instrument is then shaken about, and on shaking the grains out again through the f holes, the dust comes away also. To make the pegs work easily and yet hold fast, they must frequently be rubbed with dry soap and then with chalk, where they come in contact with the peg box.
Cleaning the hair of the bow.
If dirty, unscrew the nut from the stick, and wash the hair with warm water and soap. Then rinse in cold water, and hang up the bow to dry. When again screwed up, powdered resin is rubbed into the hair with a little brush. Spots of grease are extracted by rubbing with salt in blotting paper, or by a hot iron with blotting paper wrapped around it.
Naming and tuning of the strings.
The four strings of the violin are tuned in perfect fifths. The first is the E string (ia), the second the A (2da), the third the D (3a), and the fourth the G (4s). The usual practice, when the pitch of the A is determined, is to tune the D to it, the G to that, and lastly the E to the A.**
* New work is first prepared with a staining mixture to the desired depth of colour, smoothed and coated with hard spirit varnish, and again polished. Tr.
** The A may be taken from a pitch pipe, tuning fork, or
piano, which should be maintained at concert pitch. In old violins, if the belly has yielded to pressure under the right foot of the bridge, it is well after playing to let down the first string. If a string is too flat, pull it up about a tone above the proper