The History And Development Of Musical Instruments From The Earliest Times.

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and has incurvations at the sides. Also the sound-holes are different in form and position. The bow does not occur with any of these viols. But, as will be observed, the musicians are not represented in the act of playing; they are tuning and pre­paring for the performance, and the second of them is adjusting the bridge of his instrument.
The minstrels' gallery of Exeter cathedral dates from the four­teenth century. The front is divided into twelve niches, each of which contains a winged figure or an angel playing on an instru­ment of music. There is a cast also of this famous sculpture at South Kensington. The instruments are so much dilapidated that some of them cannot be clearly recognized ; but, as far as may be ascer­tained, they appear to be as follows :—i. The cittern. 2. The bagpipe. 3. The clarion, a small trumpet having a shrill sound. 4. The rebec. 5. The psaltery. 6. The syrinx. 7. The sackbut. 8. The regals. 9. The gittcr/i, a small guitar strung with catgut. 10. The shalm. n. The timbrel: resembling our present tam­bourine, with a double row of gingles. 12. Cymbals. Most of these instruments have been already noticed in the preceding pages. The shalm, or shawm, was a pipe with a reed in the mouth-hole. The wait was an English wind instrument of the same construc­tion. If it differed in any respect from the shalm, the difference consisted probably in the size only. The wait obtained its name from being used principally by watchmen, or waights, to proclaim the time of night. Such were the poor ancestors of our fine oboe and clarinet.
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