The History And Development Of Musical Instruments From The Earliest Times.

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94                     MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.
is no reason to suppose that it existed in England. Howbeit, the Welsh crwth (Anglo-saxon, crudh ; English, crowd) is only known as a species of fiddle closely resembling the rotta, but having a fingerboard in the middle of the open frame and being strung with only a few strings; while the rotta had sometimes above twenty strings. As it may interest the reader to examine
the form of the modern crwth we give a woodcut of it. Edward Jones, in his M Musical and poetical relicks of the Welsh bards," records that the Welsh had before this kind of crwth a three-stringed one called " Crwth Trithant," which was, he says, " a sort of violin, or more pro­perly a rebeck." The three-stringed crwth was chiefly used by the in­ferior class of bards ; and was pro­bably the Moorish fiddle which is still the favourite instrument of the itinerant bards of the Bretons in France, who call it rcbck. The Bre­tons, it will be remembered, are close kinsmen of the Welsh.
A player on the crwth or crowd (a crowder) from a bas-relief on the under part of the seats of the choir in Worcester cathedral (engraved p. 95) dates from the twelfth or thirteenth century; and we give (p. 96) a copy of an illumination from a manuscript in the Bibliotheque royale at Paris of the eleventh century. The player wears a crown on his head ; and in the original some musicians placed at his side are performing on the psalterium and other instruments. These last are figured with uncovered heads; whence M. de Coussemaker concludes that the crout was consi-
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