The History And Development Of Musical Instruments From The Earliest Times.

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quity, is the poongi, also called tonmrie and magoudi. It consists of a gourd or of the Cuddos nut, hollowed, into which two pipes are inserted. The poongi therefore somewhat resembles in appear­ance a bagpipe. It is generally used by the Sampuris or snake charmers, who play upon it when they exhibit the antics of the cobra. The name magoudi, given in certain districts to this instru­ment, rather tends to corroborate the opinion of some musical historians that the magadis of the ancient Greeks was a sort of double-pipe, or bagpipe.
Many instruments of Hindustan are known by different names in different districts ; and, besides, there are varieties of them. On the whole, the Hindus possess about fifty instruments.. To describe them properly would fill a volume. Some, which are in the Kensington museum, will be found noticed in the large cata­logue of that collection.
The Persians and Arabs.
Of the musical instruments of the ancient Persians, before the Christian era, scarcely anything is known. It may be surmised that they closely resembled those of the Assyrians, and probably also those of the Hebrews.
The harp, chang, in olden time a favourite instrument of the Persians, has gradually fallen into desuetude. The illustration of a small harp given in the woodcut has been sketched from the cele­brated sculptures, perhaps of the sixth century, which exist on a stupendous rock, called Tackt-i-Bostan, in the vicinity of the town of Kermanshah. These sculptures are said to have been executed during the lifetime of the Persian monarch Khosroo Purviz. They form the ornaments of two lofty arches, and consist of representations of field sports and aquatic amusements. In one •of the boats is seated a man in an ornamental dress, witli a halo
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