The History And Development Of Musical Instruments From The Earliest Times.

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The Double-Pipe, called mam, appears to have been a very popular instrument, if we judge from the frequency of its occur­rence in the representations of musical performances. Further­more, the Egyptians had, as far as is known to us, two kinds of trumpets; three kinds of tambourines, or little hand drums; three kinds of drums, chiefly barrel-shaped: and various kinds of gongs, bells, cymbals, and castanets. The trumpet appears to have been usually of brass. A peculiar wind-instrument, some­what the shape of a champagne bottle and perhaps made of pottery or wood, occurs only once in the representations trans­mitted to us.
The Egyptian drum was from two to three feet in length, covered with parchment at both ends and braced by cords. The performer carried it before him, generally by means of a band over his shoulder, while he was beating it with his hands on both ends. Of another kind of drum an actual specimen has been found in the excavations made in the year 1823 at Thebes. It was \\ feet high and 2 feet broad, and had cords for bracing it. A piece of catgut encircled each end of the drum, being wound round each cord, by means of which the cords could be tightened or slackened at pleasure by pushing the two bands of catgut towards or from each other. It was beaten with two drumsticks slightly bent. The Egyptians had also straight drumsticks with a handle, and a knob at the end. The Berlin museum possesses some of these. The third kind of drum was almost identical with the darabouka (or darabukkeli) of the modern Egyptians. The Tambourine was either round, like that which is at the present time in use in Europe as well as in the east; or it was of an oblong square shape, slightly incurved on the four sides.
The Sistrum consisted of a frame of bronze or brass into which three or four metal bars were loosely inserted, so as to produce a jingling noise when the instrument was shaken. The bars were often made in the form of snakes, or they terminated in the head of a goose. Not unfrequently a few metal rings were strung on
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