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190 THE INSTRUMENTS, THE SOUNDS, THE PERFORMERS
tained through the use of odd instruments, miscellaneous percussion effects, etc. Here too, as with Kenton, there were attempts to straddle the fence with works borrowed from the classics, semi-jazz works showing strong classical influences, and occasional ventures of an extremely pretentious nature, most notable of which was the recording of the Concerto for Jazz Band and Symphony Orchestra, written by Rolf Liebermann and played by the Sauter-Finegan orchestra combined with the Chicago Symphony orchestra conducted by Fritz Reiner.
In its best moments the Sauter-Finegan orchestra showed an admirable sense of humor and provided vehicles for interesting solos by vibraphonist-percussionist Joe Venuto, trumpeter Nick Travis and others.
On the periphery of jazz during the past decade have been the bands specializing in mambo music, Afro-Cuban rhythms and related forms. The sidemen in some of these orchestras often include former members of jazz bands. Machito, whose orchestra has been heard at Birdland, used such jazzmen as FHp Phillips and Howard McGhee as guest soloists and was teamed on records with Charlie Parker. Tito Puente, a vibraphonist whose band also became popular in such jazz clubs as Birdland, occasionally reflected the influence of Kenton, Herman and Basie. Among the other orchestras popular in Latin-American circles have been those of Noro Morales and Tito Rodriguez*
Mention should also be made here of the occasional formation, for recording purposes only, of big bands led by musicians normally associated with small combos. Among the most popular in recent years has been Shorty Rogers, the former Herman and Kenton trumpeter-arranger, who has recorded several albums with a large orchestra of West Coast jazz musicians, usually reflecting a somewhat modernized Basie approach.
Big band jazz has expanded immeasurably since the first tentative efforts by Fletcher Henderson showed a few of the potential uses for the brass, reeds and rhythm section. Today the term "big band" may connote a brass section that contains ten or twelve men, a five- or six-man sax team that doubles on flutes as well as clarinets, and a rhythm section that is augmented by bongos or conga drums. The point at which a big band becomes