|Visit Us On FB
130 THE INSTRUMENTS, THE SOUNDS, THE PERFORMERS
bass drum pedal twice or four times in every measure, had taken up the new technique. Notable among them were Stan Levey; the volatile and brilliant Art Blakey; the late but unforgotten Dave Tough; Shelly Mamie, a Kenton and Herman alumnus who became the West Coast's most popular and flexible percussion artist; and the influential Tiny Kahn, who died at 29 in 1953.
Less influenced by the bop approach to drumming and more concerned with a continuance of the more straightforwardly rhythmic Gene Krupa tradition were Buddy Rich, a member of the Tommy Dorsey band off and on from 1939, and Louis Bellson. The latter, winner of a Krupa contest for young drummers, joined Benny Goodman in 1943, later galvanizing the Ellington orchestra for two unprecedently swinging years (1951-2) and demonstrating his phenomenal footwork through the novel device of using two bass drums.
The late 1940s saw the emergence of a new school of drummers who combined many influences. Afro-Cuban and Latin rhythms, imported into the Gillespie band by the late Chano Pozo in 1948, were rapidly taken up, and within a few years their use, previously a rarity and often regarded as detracting from the authenticity of jazz, could be detected at one point or another in almost every set of performances by a modern jazz group. The infusion of Latin rhythms drew to the periphery of jazz a wealth of previously unfamiliar percussive sounds. New names are constantly arising to denote dance styles, rhythm patterns or both; fundamentally the whole family of Latin-American and Afro-Cuban rhythms such as rhumba, mambo, merengue, cha-cha-cha, constitutes a diversity of accentuations, applied to the subdivision of a four-four measure into eighth notes. For example, the rhumba consists simply of accents on the first, fourth and seventh of these eight notes. The mambo is founded on a two-measure rhythm pattern, one of which (usually the first, though the pattern can be reversed) is identical with that of the rhumba; the other measure simply accents the second and third quarter notes. This two-measure formula, played on a pair of thick hardwood sticks known as the claves, is the continuum of all Cuban music. Authentic mambo melodies are "in clave"; that is, their