Folk Music in The United States


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32                 An Introduction to Folk Music in the United States

petitive culture which has been presented to the general reader by Ruth Benedict.9 The differences between Plains and Northwest Coast texts are also reflected in the music. While the Plains songs are sung in a relatively objective manner, all songs using roughly the same vocal style and having little emphasis on the words, the Northwest Coast songs ai-e sung more expressively and boldly. Of course all the differences between these musical styles cannot be ascribed simply to general differences in outlook.

The Indians of the Southwest tend to have longer and more elaborate song texts, sometimes divided into lines, and more closely resembling Western types of poetry. Herzog gives the following texts from the Pima:

Dragonfly got drunk Clasped hands with gigikukl bird Swaying they lurched along, Dragonfly untangled the songs (i.e.,

sang for the first time the songs he dreamt),^° Where is the mountain? Yonder far away rises the mirage The dust raised by me rolls toward it Many people's yelling, between them I am moving J ^

Many Indian tribes played gambling games, usually by hiding small objects, which were accompanied by songs. The team which was hiding an object sang songs whose texts mocked or ridiculed the opposing team, enabling the hiders to keep a poker face and thus avoided giving away the hiding place, and sometimes invoked supernatural aid for victory. Herzog quotes the following texts of gambling songs from the Navaho:

Where is it going to be hidden (six times)

Big turkey

His wattle goes up and down.^2

The moccasins are laid out in a row (six times).

It is going to be at the same place as before.'^

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