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Translator's Appendix.
The Viola.
The terms "Viola", "Tenor", "Bratsche", "Alto", and "Quinte", are all used in different countries to designate that member of the violin family which is tuned a fifth lower than the violin. In England it is commonly known as the Tenor, from the fact of its playing a part in the string quartet analogous to that of the tenor voice in relation to the other voices in part-singing. In Italy it was termed the "Viola di braccio" to distinguish it from the larger viols which rested on the ground or were supported by being placed between the performer's knees. "Viola" or "Alto" the Italians now term it, the music written for it being in the alto clef (middle C on the 3 rd line):
The German term "Bratsche" is simply a corruption of "Braccio". "Quinte" is the name by which it is usually called in France, indicating that it is tuned a fifth lower than the violin.
The tuning is as follows:
A           D          G           C
string string string string
The G and C are both covered strings.
Occasional high passages necessitate the employment of the treble or "violin" clef. Although its three upper strings are identical in pitch with the three lowest of the violin, the quality is quite different, the viola being more reedy and penetrating. This is due to the disproportion
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