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82
APPENDIX.
The simultaneous sounding of subordinate and combination tones.
Without entering into the province of musical acoustics, the well-known experiment only can be mentioned here demon­strating that mingled with the notes one plays, others are audible. It is with this object that a snuffbox or a key is laid on the upper table of the violin. If one plays double stops in slow tempo whilst one of these articles is thus placed, not only two notes, but three, four, or even more, may be heard. In order to obtain good and correct progressions in harmony, the double notes played must follow in suitable sequence. Generally, two intervals of the same kind should not follow each other.
In order to make the sympathetic tones more plainly audible, and at the same time to obviate the whizzing noise produced during the bowing by the article placed on the upper table, Hermann Schroeder has invented an apparatus called "Vibrator for the production of harmonic overtones, and for the reinforcement of the combination tones of stringed instruments" (Germ. R. Patent No. 40224).
The inventor says in his specification "Researches into the sympathetic tones of instruments of the violin species, and a theory deduced therefrom as to the movement of the bow upon the strings", (Leipsic, C. W. Fritzsch) amongst other things the following: — In order to produce upon stringed instruments — more especially the violin, — the harmonic overtones of the notes played, as well as the combination tones, a weight (g) is brought over the upper table of the violin fastened to it, but allowed free play. This weight, when the instrument is being played, vibrates with the vibrations of the upper table, being kept in its place by the spring (h, f). That the weight, during its vibration, may be firmly kept in one fixed position, the holder (f) is fastened to the ribs of the violin. On the other hand the shifting, very elastic tail (h) above this holder, with its fastened end (h1) over a peg (s), grips the vibrating weight (g) controlling its movements up and down upon the instrument.
With the spring (h) in position, one can then fix the screw and holder (f) over any part of the ribs, bringing the weight (g) into action upon various parts of the body of the violin. Yet its application will best sue-
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