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PICTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF THE BOW-STROKES. g
The same in a simpler and more condensed style.
Read from the left, the bowings in the first example are shown together with their notes, and the signs of up and down strokes are then to be found in their ordinary positions. The editor of the Studies has, however, given the preference to the employment of the second manner of writing these, on account of the simplified and easily produced representations of the bow, and also because of the compressed form of the bowing strokes given below it. The pictorial signs for the bowing are more particularly for use in such studies as exemplify different methods of playing, or such as have groups of repeated phrasings and bowings; in the remaining studies they are employed wher­ever the ordinary signs and terms do not suffice to show the relative extent of the distribution of the bow.
The mute.
The mute is a clamp with three notches, which, to obtain a muffled tone, is fastened on the bridge between the strings. Its use is indicated by "con sordino," its removal by "senza sordino," or by "with" and "without mute". There are also mutes which are fastened to the violin in order to avoid this noisy fixing and unfixing, being brought into action by a slight push. These mutes are not made as a clasp, but consist of a small plate which presses against the bridge, and not upon it.
Schroeder, Catechism of Violin playing.                             6
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