Folk & Traditional Music of the Western Continents

The folk & traditional music of Europe, Africa & the Americas explored.

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STUDYING THE STRUCTURE OF FOLK MUSIC 3 I
Following transcription come analysis and description of the musical styles and of the cultural background and context of the music. The kinds of problems that ethnomusicologists confront range from investigations into the history and the unrecorded pre­history of folk styles, the movement of music from one people to another, the interrelationship between the words and music of song, the history and structure of folk instruments, and the tribal aesthetics of music, to narrower and more intensive studies into the musical repertory of a single folk singer and the interrelationship of the variants of a single song. A few examples of such studies are men­tioned in further chapters.
Bibliography
Methods of analysis and approaches to describing musical styles in their various phases are set forth in Curt Sachs, The Welhprings of Music (The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1962). Curt Sachs, The Rise of Music in the Ancient World (New York: Norton, 1943) also discusses the vari­ous elements of music and introduces the field of ethnomusicology. Many publications deal with methods of analyzing individual aspects of music. Among them we mention only Sirvart Poladian, "Melodic Contour in Traditional Music," J-IFMC, III (1951), 30-35; Mieczyslaw Kolinski, "Consonance and Dissonance," Ethnomusicology■, VI (1962), 66-74; Kol­inski, "Determinants of Tonal Construction in Tribal Music," Musical Quarterly, XLIII (1957), 50-56; and Curt Sachs, Rhythm and Tempo (New York: Norton, 1953), the first two chapters.
General works about the field of ethnomusicology, its history and theories, are Jaap Kunst, Ethnomusicology, 3rd ed. (The Hague: M. NijhorT, 1959) and Bruno Nettl, Theory and Method in Ethnomusicology (New York: Free Press of Glencoe, Inc., 1964). Special developments of ethnomusicology in the U.S. are discussed in Mantle Hood, "Music, the Unknown" in Music'ology (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963). Other discussions of research methods appear in Alan P. Merriam, "Eth­nomusicology, Discussion and Definition of the Field," Ethno?nusicology, IV (1960), 107-14 and Willard Rhodes, "Towards a Definition of Eth­nomusicology," American Anthropologist, LVIII (1956), 457-63. George Herzog, Research in Primitive and Folk Music in the United States, A Survey (Washington: A.C.L.S., 1936) gives information on archives and field collections. The standard work on instruments is Curt Sachs, The History of Musical Instruments (New York: Norton, 1940), and the basic book on dance, including that of non-Western cultures, is Curt Sachs, A World History of the Dance (New York: Norton, 1937). An







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