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628                                   ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC.
stand in one straight line at the commencement; the men together and the women together.
Fain I would is " a Square Dance for eight," and men and women stand as in a quadrille, except that the man is on the right of his partner.
Bull Sir John and Hide Parke are also square dances for eight; and in those the couples stand exactly as in the modern quadrille. This is the form the French copied, and with it some of the country-dance figures. To one of these they gave the name of " Chaine Anglaise."
Although Playford alludes, in his preface, to the dancing of the ancient Greeks, and to " the sweet and airy activity " of our gentlemen of the Inns of Court (who were no doubt looking out to become Lord Chancellors); he does not mention French dancing, neither is there one French term in the book.
It is time to protest against Mr. De Quincey's derivation since it has been quoted in a work of such authority as English, Past and Present, by Richard Chevenix Trench, B.D. (the present Dean of Westminster), and this book the substance of lectures delivered to the pupils of King's College, London. I would add that, to this day, French dances have made no way in English villages. The amusements of our peasantry are the hornpipe, the country-dance, the jig, and occasionally the reel.
I have no doubt that, if time permitted me to make the search, I should find much English dance music in early French collections, as well as in those of other countries; for, on a recent visit of a few hours to the Bibliotheque Imperial, in Paris, three books of lute music were shown to me,8 and among the contents I observed, " Courante d'Angleterre," " Gigue d'Angleterre," "Sarabande d'Angleterre," "Pavane d'Angleterre" (several), "Galliarda Joannis Doolandi" (Dowland), "Chorea Anglicana,"'&c. One of these was a manuscript with a printed title-page by Robert Ballard, the early French music publisher (No. 2,660) ; a second, Le Tresor d'Orphee, printed by his widow and son in 1600. In the preface to the third, I read " Prout sunt illi Anglicani Concentus suavissimi quidem, ac elegantes," &c. This was Thesaurus Harmonious divini Laurencini, Romani. Cologne, 1603. fol.
Playford recommends dancing as making the body active and strong and the deportment graceful; but I imagine that when country-dances were danced in the country, activity and lofty springing were the principal tests of excellence.
The genuine country way was perhaps as described in Rastell's interlude, The Four Elements, where one of the characters says,
" I shall bryng hydyr another sort              And tome clene above the grounde
Of lusty bluddes, to make dysport,           With fryscas and with gambawdes round,
That can both daunce and spryng,            That all the hall shall ryng."
It may have been otherwise at Court, for, as the song says, " There they did dance As in France, Not in the English lofty manner."
* I am indebted to the courtesy of Mr. Anders, one of      catalogues of the library, as in England ; so that, unless
the librarians, for shewing me these books of lute music,      a bonk has been quoted before, it is only by such assist-
and for assisting me in the search after the origin of the     'ance that it can be discovered. Contredanse. Readers are not permitted to see the







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