The First Principles Of Pianoforte Playing

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RECAPITULATORY OF CHAPTER XXIII., AND PART IV. 109
arm and their relationship to those of the thumb and wrist,1 re­quire very careful attention, when first learning the scale and arpeggio.
33): A rotary movement of the hand and fore-arm may ac­company the act of touch, when the extreme fingers of the hand are required to sound notes. This movement is then substituted for the more usual descending movements of the finger, hand or arm.            In such " rotation-touch " the required fingers should
be placed in their depressed position, preliminarily to the act of touch.2
34) : The actual height of the Fore-arm depends on the posi­tion of the Wrist. The most natural position is about level; or with the under-surface of the fore-arm slightly higher than the keys at the wrist, and slightly lower than these at the elbow.
35) : Correct position of the upper-arm or elbow is most important. This is an absolutely vital mat­ ter ; for it is impossible to obtain either freedom of reach, or the free 'weight of the Upper-arm, unless the latter slopes sufficiently forward, from the shoulder.           The whole arm,
from shoulder to wrist, must hence be opened-out almost into an obtuse angle.3
36) : The elbow, viewed from behind, should while thus lying forward, be neither pressed to the side, nor should it be unduly protruded sideways.           The elbow must nevertheless freely
change its position sideways, when a passage travels to the more extreme portions of the key-board.
37)  : Vertical movements of the arm are of two kinds, either of the whole arm from the shoulder,
or of the fore-arm alone, from the elbow.
The beginning and the end of each phrase is usually accom­panied by arm-movement.
38)  : The position of the body itself is mainly determined by the necessity for having the arm suf-
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