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THE ACTIONS AND INACTIONS.
of the hand to pronounce their notes prominently. These adjustments enable us to support either side of the hand off the keys when required ; and enable us also to influence either side with more force or weight when that is required.
ff): This forms Rotation-touch, when such adjustments are allowed to become visible as a tilting movement of the hand.
gg) : Lateral movements of the Hand and of the Wrist itself are also required to ensure Evenness. Without such movements, it would be impossible to connect without break or jerk the various fingering-positions out of which passages are formed. These side to side movements (whether great or small) must be absolutely unrestrained.
bh) : Rotary and lateral freedom of the Wrist enables one to feel always " ready " over every note beforehand.
ii) : Purely Vertical freedom of the Wrist-joint itself must be insisted upon, besides this rotary and lateral freedom. Only in this way can a really free Wrist be ensured.
jj): Per contra : if we always insist on feeling ready and vertical over each note, before attempting its production, we shall fulfil these three conditions of freedom of the Wrist—laterally, rotarily, and vertically.
kk): To enable us to reach closely adjacent notes, slight lateral movements of the fingers themselves suffice.
ll) : To enable us to take larger skips, but such as do not exceed about two octaves in extent, we must use lateral movements of the Forearm, with the Elbow as the apparent pivot. These are mainly induced by a partial rotation of the Upper-arm.
mm) : For still larger skips, the whole arm, from the shoulder, must move sideways. Such large skips however become exceedingly uncertain, if attempted beyond a comparatively slow speed.
nn) : Muscular - discriminations in very definite directions have thus been proved requisite. These should be studied in the Table annexed to this chapter.