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by them. It is called in Corean dialect saing-hwang.* Gongs, tamtams, and noisy instruments of percussion, the Japanese possess in profusion; they have also a curious instrument, quite like the Egyptian sistrum,f formed of two sonorous metal­lic rings upon a light frame work, which give forth a tinkling and jingling upon being shaken, or struck with a small stick.}: The ko-kiou is a kind of violoncello played with a bow; the birva is a similar instrument, which is picked with a plectrum. The same plectrum is used in performing upon the sam-si7i. The clarionet is used very frequently; it is made of bamboo, like the flute. There is also an eight-holed flageolet. Among the instruments of percussion, are wooden rattles; stone drums like bowls, which stand on low frames; a musical drum made of leather; the tam-tam, or portable tambourine; gongs of all shapes, such as shields, fishes, tortoises, etc., producing all tones grave and piercing; bells, and kettle drums.
The tambourines which accompany the charac­ter dances, are sometimes played two at a time; one being held under the arm, the other in the left hand.§ There is a picture extant, represent­ing a Japanese concert, in which there is one melodious instrument (a flute) against six instru­ments of percussion, such as bells, cymbals and drums. ||
•Ibid, 39.
t See Article on Egypt.
t Fetis Uist. de la Mus. T. 1, p. 84.
§ Humbert's Japan, p. 174.
I Siebold Pantheon of Nipon, part C, plate*

E-Book - An Annotated Compendium of Old Time American Songs by James Alverson III