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124 CURIOSITIES OF MUSIC.
mentioned dynasty was (for a change) a most vicious emperor. Kie was, according to the chroniclers, a sort of Mongolian Caligula, and his memory is execrated.
The next dynasty, called Chang, after a prosperous series of emperors, also ended with an atrocious tyrant called Tchow, who invented a luxurious style of music, and is said to have first established the feast of lanterns. He was deprived of throne and life by violence.
Ou-wang a later ruler, is chiefly celebrated for his military music, for which he seems to have had a, penchant and of which he composed considerable. One of his pieces was intended for performance while the army formed itself in order of battle.
In his day, the discipline of music was very thoroughly attended to. Every ceremony and rite had its appropriate music attached; the musicians had to undergo two examinations each year, and all innovations either in composition, or in the shaping of musical instruments was jealously guarded against. No special features appear in the musical history of China during the next few reigns.
In the reign of Koang-tsee, a valuable treatise on music was published, which is still highly esteemed. At this era a^o were established Mandarins of music and of the dance. At this epoch flourished the great Kong-fu-tsee, or Confucius, the leader of Chinese thought and philosophy.
This sage's name was simply Kong, but his discif les added the title, fu-tsee, which makes the