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HINDOO MUSIC.                            13
the importance of the tonic, and dominant, and often finishes the phrases of a melody with a half cadence.*
Of the Hindoo instruments the Vina takes the lead; as before mentioned, they ascribe to it a divine origin; it has four strings and is incorrectly defined as a lyre by many commentators, but it is rather a guitar than lyre, and is made of a large hollow bamboo pipe, about 3 1-2 feet long, at each end of which are two large hollow gourds, to increase the resonance: it may be roughly com­pared to a drum major's baton, with a ball at both ends, while the strings extend along the stick; it has a finger-board like a guitar, and the frets are not fastened permanently on it, but stuck on by the performer with wax.
The tone is both full and delicate, sometimes metallic and clear and very pleasant. The music composed for it is usually brilliant and rapid, and the Hindoos seem to have their Liszts and Rubin­steins; in the last century Djivan Shah was known throughout all India as a virtuoso, on the Vina.
They ornament their Vinas sometimes very rich­ly and there are paintings of their chief performers, sitting with magnificent Vinas leaning against their bodies, this being the attitude of the player. They also have possessed from time immemorial, a three-stringed violin, so that Eaphael and Tin­toretto may not have committed an anachronism in paintiag Apollo with a violin, f
• Ambroa t Krause.

E-Book - An Annotated Compendium of Old Time American Songs by James Alverson III