Harmony Book For Beginners - online book

Scales, Intervals, Common Chords, Dominant Seventh Chord and Melody Making.

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We have stated that Normal Fourths and Fifths are called Perfect; hence the terms Major and Minor do not apply.
But if we lessen a Perfect Fourth (or Fifth) by One Half-Step, we call it a Dimin­ished Fourth (or Fifth) and if we increase a Perfect Fourth (or Fifth) by One Half-Step, we call it an Augmented Fourth (or Fifth).
Perfect Fourth Diminished Fourth Augmented Fourth Perfect Fifth Diminished Fifth Augmented Fifth
Half-Steps 5                        4                          6
Try these Intervals and listen closely.
Now the student should write Perfect, Diminished and Augmented Fourths and Fifths in the Scales of G, D, A, indicating the number of Half-Steps.
Remember, that the number of letters included to make any Interval must always be correct, no matter how we may be obliged to employ Sharps, Flats, etc., in order to attain the proper number of Half-Steps. Here are some examples:

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