Harmony Book For Beginners - online book

Scales, Intervals, Common Chords, Dominant Seventh Chord and Melody Making.

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As an additional writing and ear-training exercise, let the student write and play all the Intervals in each scale which can he formed by employing any two degrees of each scale. For instance, take the second degree of the Scale of C, D, and write Seconds, Thirds, etc., above D; then take E and do likewise; and so on.
The foregoing exercise having been completed, let us plunge deeper into the subject of Intervals.
We now know, in a general way, how to name an Interval, but each named In­terval may be one of several kinds, or specific varieties.
Let us illustrate: according to our method of arriving at the Name of an Interval, C to D is called a Second, but C to Db must also be called a Second, since only two letters are involved, in either case. Let us look at these Seconds, and play them:
All are Sixths, but each has a different sound.
To return to our Seconds: C to D and 0 to Db; let us count the Half-Steps in each. From C to D is a Whole Step or two Half-Steps, but from C to Dt^ is a Half-Step. This experiment leads us to the general principle:
The Kind or Variety of an Interval depends upon the number of Half-Steps.
The Major Scale furnishes us with a Standard of Measurement for all Intervals. To any of the Normal Intervals of the Major Scale which can be formed from its Tonic to Any Other Degree we apply the terms Major or Perfect.
The Seconds, Thirds, Sixths and Sevenths thus produced are called Major. The Fourths and Fifths are called Perfect. An explanation of the difference between the terms Major and Perfect will be bad later. Take it on faith just now.
Let us write the Normal Intervals in the Scale of C Major, giving their name and kind. Then play them and endeavor to recognize them when heard. Let us also count the number of Half-Steps in each.
Let the student before going further write out the Normal Intervals in all the other Major Scales in the same manner as above. Do not neglect it; it is well worth doing.

E-Book - An Annotated Compendium of Old Time American Songs by James Alverson III