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122 An Introduction to Folk Music in the United States
Ludwig Erk and Franz Magnus Bohme, Deutscher Liederhort (Leipzig, 1859-1872); Eleanor Hague, Latin American Music, Past and Present (Santa Anna, Calif., 1934); Boris Kremenlief, Bulgarian-Macedonian Folk Music (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1952); Ilmari Krohn, Suomen Kansan sdvelmid (Helsinki, 1893-1912); A. E. Launis, Lappische Juoigos-Melodien (Helsinki, 1908); Elsa Mahler, Altrussische Volkslieder aus dem Pecoryland (Basel, 1951); John Meier, ed., Deutsche Volkslieder mit ihren Melodien (Leipzig, 1935-); Fehpe Pedrell, Cancionero musical popular espanol (Barcelona, 1948).
Chapter VIII This field has hardly been touched in theoretical and scholarly literature. Some statements by professional folk singers are relevant here, however: T. Anthony and Burl Ives, "Wayfaring Minstrel," Etude, LXIII (1945), 688; and John Jacob Niles, "My Precarious Life in the Public Domain," Atlantic, CLXXXII (1948), 129-131. Biographical information on folk singers is available in Ray M. Lawless, Folksingers and Folksongs in America (New York, 1960).
The methods of studying folk and primitive music are outlined by Jaap Kunst, Ethno-Musicology (The Hague, 3d ed. 1959), and in Chapter 7 of Glen Haydon, Introduction to Musicology (New York, 1941), also in several of the descriptions of primitive music listed in Chapter 11. Some special problems in this field are treated in Bertrand H. Bronson, "Mechanical Help in the Study of Folk Song," ''Journal of American Folklore, LXII (1949), 81-86; George Herzog, "Speech-Melody and Primitive Music," Musical Quarterly, XX (1934), 452-466, and "Musical Typology in Folksong," Southern Folklore Quarterly, I (1937), 48-55.
Collecting techniques are discussed by Bruno Nettl, "Recording Primitive and Folk Music in tie Field," American Anthropologist, LVI (1954), 1101-1102; and in several short pubHcations by the International Folk Music Council: Memorandum on Cataloguing and Classification of Sound Recordings of Folk Music (London, 1955) and Manual for Folk Music Collections (London, 1951). The I.F.M.C. has also published a pamphlet, Notation of Folk Music (London, 1952), which surveys the available methods and makes recommendations. A guide to general research materials is Bruno Nettl, Reference Materials in Ethnomusicology (Detroit, 1961).
Chapter X A scholarly survey of the uses of folk music in cultivated music is Walter Wiora, Europdische Volksmusik und ahendldndische Tonkunst (Kassel, 1957). A famous composer's view is presented in Ralph Vaughan Williams, National Music (London, 1959).