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85.  If two or more tones of a melody are to be sung to one syllable, the notes representing them are generally connected by a character called a Slur. The Slur is also used to indicate a Legato movement,
86.   If a syllable is to be sung to a tone repre­sented by two or more notes, these notes are usually connected by a Tie. (See Art 11.)
that the note or passage thus marked has been raised or lowered an octave; Maestoso, with dignified, ma­jestic expression; mesto or mestoso, pensive, sad, mournful; mezzo, in medium degree, as mezzo forte, rather loud, mezzo piano, rather soft; mezzo voce, with moderation as to tone; molto, much or very, as molto voce, with a full voice; JVon, not; non troppo, not too much; Piu, more; piu mosso, with more motion, faster; poco, somewhat, rather, as poco piano, some­what soft; poco presto, rather quick; Rallentando, (rallen or rail.) gradually slower and softer; reci-tando, a speaking manner of performance; recitative, musical declamation; rinforzando, suddenly increas­ing in power; ritardando, (ritard or rit.) a retard­ing of the movement; Sostenuto, sustained; sot to, under, below, as sotto voce, with subdued voice; spirito or con spirito, with spirit, animation; spirt-toso, with great spirit; Tutti, the whole, full chorus; Vigoroso, bold, energetic; veloce, with rapidity; vivace, quick and cheerful; vivo, lively, animated; void subito, turn the page quickly.
93.  A Chord is a pleasing combination of tones sounded together.
94.  Harmony is a succession of chords, ac­cording to the rules of progression and modulation.
95.  The Common Chord is formed by com­bining any tone with Its third and fifth. If the third of the chord is a Major third, the chord is a Major chord; if Minor, it is a Minor chord.
96.  The chord founded upon the Key-note, or Tonic, is called the chord of the Tonic; the chord founded upon the Dominant is called the chord of the Dominant; and the chord founded upon the Sub-Dominant is called the chord of the Sub-Dominant.
97.  The Chord of the Seventh is the com­mon chord with the minor-seventh added. This chord is generally founded upon the Dominant If founded on G, the Dominant of C, it is composed of the tones G, B, D, F.
98.  Either the fifth or the octave of a chord may be omitted, but the third must always be present, ex­cept in the dominant seventh chord.
99.  The different forms of a chord can be made by placing either the key-note, or third, or fifth, in the bass, the first being the first position, the second the second position, and the third the third position of the chord. The positions of the chord of C are:
DYNAMICS: Power of Tones.
87.  The power of tones may be indicated by the ibllowing Italian words, marks, or abbreviations t
Mezzo, . . . . m, . . . medium. Piano, . . . . p, . . . soft. Forte, . . . . f, . . . loud. Pianissimo, . . pp, . , . very soft. Fortissimo, . . ff, . . . very loud. Mezzo Piano. . mp, . . moderately soft. Mezzo Forte, . mf, . . moderately loud. Crescendo, . . cres., or —=:, . gradual increase. Diminuendo, . dim., or z=—, . gradual decrease. Swell, . . . -~< =—, . increase and decrease. Sforzando, . -< or s£zf t ( an explosive tone, with sudden decrease.
88.   The following words and characters are also sometimes used to indicate proper delivery of tones:
Legato, s~-^, tones smooth and connected. Staccato, » t i tones very short and disconnected. Semi-Staccato, or Alarcato, • • • tones moder­ately short and disconnected.
89.  Vocal Utterance, or the Emission of tone, should be instantaneous, decided, and firm; and the tone should be free, open, round, full, pure, and as resonant as possible.
DO. A necessary quality of good singing is the proper articulation and pronunciation of the words. Avoid singing a word without properly speaking it; or speaking a word without properly singing it. Do not sing with a too exact, machine-like correctness. Be careful and accurate, but put expression, soul, and intelligent personality into your work.
91.  Breath should be taken at such places as will not mar the sense; at pauses and after emphatic words.
92.  The following list includes ordinary marks of expression, with certain other terms used in music: Accelerando, or accel., accelerate the time, gradually faster and faster; ad libitum, or ad lib., at pleasure; animato, or con anima, animated, with animated ex­pression; affetuoso, tender, affecting; agitato, with agitation, anxiously; amoroso or con amore, affec­tionately, tenderly; a tempo, in time; Bon marcato, in pointed, well-marked manner; bis, twice; bril-liante, gay, brilliant, sparkling; brio or con brio, with brilliancy and spirit; Cantata, a composition of several movements, comprising airs, recitations and choruses; coda, a close, or additional ending of a Composition; con affeto, with expression; con dolore, mournfully, with grief and pathos; con energia, with energy; con expressione, with expression; confuoco, with ardor, fire; con grazia, with grace and elegance; con moto, with agitation, emotion; con spirito, with spirit, animation; Declamando, declamato, ;n decla­matory style; dolce, soft, tender, sweet; dolorosa, ten­der and pathetic; Energico, with energy; expressivo, with expression; Forzando, with sudden increase of power; Grave., with slow and solemn expression; Lentando, gradually slower; loco, passage to be played exactly as written in regard to the pitch—it usually occurs after the sign 8va - - - which means
The above positions are in the key of C It will be found to be of advantage for the teacher to explain them in all the keys, and to require pupils to write them, giving the Tonic, Dominant, Sub-Dominant, and Chord of the Seventh, in the different keys. A correct knowledge of the laws of Harmony is essen­tial to the arrangement of music for voices or instru­ments. As it is not possible to treat this subject at any length in these pages, the student is referred to more extended works for its discussion, and to indi­vidual or class training by a competent instructor.
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