Favorite Songs and Hymns For School and Home, page: 0376

450 Of The World's Best Songs And Hymns, With Lyrics & Sheet music for voice & piano.

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376
FAVORITE SONGS FOR SCHOOL AND HOME.
all of which may afterwards be written in the numer­als. These figures can be so written as to represent three octaves, by placing a dash above those that fall below the staff, below those that are above the staff, and before and after those upon the statff— the dash all the while representing the Staff.
perience has shown, by frequent exercises upon the nu­merals, alternating with the names of notes, etc., and hence much of this practice is here condensed into little space. The Scale should be regarded as the unit in thinking sounds, and should be taught as a •whole. The practice of the sounds as relative mental objects, should then form a part of each lesson until these relative sounds are familiar in every ordinary relation to each ether.
Simple melodies and familiar tunes may be written on the blackboard in numerals, followed by commas or dashes, as the notes are short or long. Pupils may thus be familiarized with the third, fourth, fifth or other intervals, by associating them with like inter­vals in tunes with which they are perfectly familiar. This will be found a hint of much practical value. No other country gives so much attention to music as Germany, and this, with German teachers, is a favorite method of fixing in the mind certain scale intervals.
Too little attention is directed to developing tone perception in the minds of pupils. The teacher who sings should frequently sound the key-note, then sing ah or la to any tone or tones in the scale, and have the pupils name the number and syllable, and (when the key is announced), the letter. The same training can be given by sounding the key-note, and having a part of the class sing the tones indicated by the pointer, while the rest of the class, with their backs turned, name the tones that have been sung. To know the name of the note is a very different matter from being able to sense the tone, and much less im­portant. This practical knowledge of tones is essential.
The teacher should cultivate a soft, distinct, and pleasing quality of tone. A good style of singing can only be acquired by imitation, and that of the teacher should be worthy to be imitated. In these ex­ercises the numerals, or names of the sounds, may be sung first; then the syllables, Do, Re, Mi, etc.; then the letters or the pitch of the sounds, and finally the syllable ah, or la, for each note. t Be careful that every tone is sung with precision. Use D as one, throughout the above exercises, afterwards the scale of E|?, E, and C. Be sure that the pitch is correct. Test frequently for correct pitch, with tuning fork, pitch-pipe, piano, or organ. The " scale " is sung by the Syllables; the names of the successive sound inter­vals by the Numerals; the pitch of the sounds (the key being known) by the Letters—a distinction which will be of interest to intelligent pupils. This should be so well known to the class that there can be no mistake as to what is meant when the teacher uses the terms, "Scale," " Name" " Pitch," as words of command during the singing exercise.
Teachers who are not familiar with the scale can, of themselves, by the aid of the organ or piano, readily master the succession of tones found in these exer­cises. The difficulty is not great, and the pleasure and profit to teacher and school will be positive and lasting—each step forward giving courage for another.
Observe the following directions for singing: i. Let the body be erect, avoiding stiffness or restraint. 2. Take breath easily and naturally, without raising the shoulders. 3. Let the mouth be well opened, taking care to avoid rigidity of the muscles of the throat and neck. 4. Aim at purity of tone, rather than mere power. 5. Practice frequently, singing the vowel a (ah), endeavoring to produce the sound in the front part of the mouth. It is recommended to preface the a (ah) with me vowels 00,' 0, singing them rapidly and uniting them with the a, and dwelling upon the a; thus, 00, o, a. This prevents the sound from being made too far back in the mouth. 6. Articulate
It is of prime importance that there should be a feeling of confidence and prompt readiness—"sure touch "—in passing from on£ degree of the Scale to another. This can be acquired most readily, as ex-
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