Favorite Songs and Hymns For School and Home, page: 0374

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Female voice are an octave higher than those of the Male, hence a Soprano solo sung by a Tenor sounds an octave lower than the notes in which it is written.
32.  The different parts are commonly represented in music by two or more staves, united by a Brace, and called a Score.
33.  The Absolute Pitch of Tones (the pitch independent of scale relationship), is designated by the letters naming the degrees of the Staff; as, A, B, C, D, E, F, G. The position of these letters is fixed
' and unchangeable while the clef remains unchanged.
34.  The difference of pitch between any two tones, as from A to B, from A to E, from C to G, etc., is called an Interval. A true knowledge of inter­vals can only be communicated through the Ear. The pupil must listen carefully to tones and compare them constantly. Without this practical acquaintance with the subject, names, definitions and illustrations are of little account.
35.  In the regular succession of the Natural Tones, there are two kinds of intervals, larger and smaller. The larger intervals are called Tones and the smaller Semi-Tones. The successive tones ot the aajoi scale, in all the keys, occur in the fol­lowing ordei: Between one and two, a tone; be­tween two and three, a tone; between three and four, a semi-tone; between four and five, a tone; between
five and six, a tone; between six and seven, a tone; and between seven and eight, a semi-tone. These two half-tones in the octave afford infinite variety in music Were the eight natural sounds in the octave equi­distant one from another, there being no semi-tones, the keys would differ only in acuteness and not in quality, as now. Choose melodies from the book in the different keys and give the pupils exercise in read, ing these intervals of tones and semi tones.
30. Between any two tones of the Staff having the interval of a step, another tone may be inserted, dividing the step into two half steps. Thus, a tone may be inserted between C and D, etc. Some sing ers of Southern Europe add a certain brilliancy ol effect by again dividing the half-step; but ability to do this is not possessed by the people of Central o» Northern Europe, or of America.
37. The degrees of the Staff represent these in­serted tones by the aid of characters called Sharp and Flats. Thus, a tone inserted between C and D, is named C sharp, or D fiat.
Range Of the Human Voice.—The compass of every human voice for singing must fall some­where within the wide range of notes given herewith. But, of course, no single voice has ever been equal to these thirty-one notes at any one period in life. The boy who sings a high soprano may take nearly all the upper notes, but when grown to manhood his voice " changes," and he has ability to sing only in the three lower octaves. As. to the range of notes here found, it requires a phenomenal Bass to reach the lowest (Great Doable C)» and a Soprano only less remarkable to sing the highest (e") with confidence and musical effect If the reader has not learned the compass of his own voice, it will be both interesting and satisfactory to test, with piano or organ, for its highest and lowest notes, as well as for those tones in which it is strong and full, 0/ weak and uncertain. By intelligent practice the compass may be increased and the tones improved.
The Staff in the Bass clef extends from G to A. Three notes intervene between this and the staff in the Treble, which, as will be seen, may be written in either clef, above the Bass or below the Treble. Of these, the middle note (c) is known as" Middle " C— because midway between the two clefs. The treble clef extends from e to f. All the letters below G in the bass and e in the treble, occupy places in success­ive order downwards on the added lines and spaces below the staff; all above A in the bass and f in the treble on the added lines above the staff. "Middle C " (c) corresponds to the fourth note on the G string of the violin at ordinary concert pitch, or to Middle C on piano or organ. Great Double C, or Contra C, as it is called, having about thirty-three vibrations to the second, the next higher C doubles that number; and so on, each octave higher doubling the number of vi­brations of the octave next below it.
The entire range of the human voice in music—from lowest Bass to highest Soprano—may be reckoned from Ej? below the staff in the bass clef, four octaves, to Ep above the staff in the treble clef. Vocal sounds lower or higher than this seem to have little power of expression in any sense. Voices are usually consid­ered under three divisions for the male, and four for
the female sex; Bass, Barytone, and Tenor; Con­tralto, Alto, Mezzo Soprano, and Soprano. The usual range of the Bass is from F or E below the bass clef, rarely lower, two octaves to f; Barytone, from G, o» first line of bass clef, two octaves, to g-; Tenor, from C, two octaves, to c'; Contralto, the deepest female voice, from F to c", being two and one-half octaves; Alto, two octaves, from F to f; Mezzo Soprano, from A to a'; and Soprano from " Middle C ■ (c), two oc­taves to c", which is also indicated as c2- Middle C has about 132 vibrations to the second, and is pro­duced by sound waves from eight to nine feet apart. Waves at half that distance apart, produce a tone one octave higher, half that again the next higher octave, and so on. In large organs, C, an octave below Con­tra C, with \6}4 vibrations per second, is reached, but the effect is imperfect. The piano reaches a4, with 3,520 vibrations per second, and sometimes c5. with 4,224 vibrations. The highest note taken in the or­chestra is probably d5, on the piccolo flute, with 4,752 vibrations. The practical range in music is from 40 to 4,000 vibrations per second, embracing seven oc­taves. The human ear is, however, able to compass eleven octaves, that is to say, it notes vibrations rang­ing from 16/4 up to 38,000 in a single second of time.
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