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The pupil should, of course, be taught that a Measure may be filled with other notes than those used in the above examples. Let him fill the measures with notes of different lengths, rests, etc. As will be seen, a piece of music may begin on any part of a measure. When it begins on a fractional part, it ends on a fractional part; and the two parts thus formed equal a complete measure.
16. The Numerator of the Fraction at the beginning of the above examples indicates the number of beats into which the measure is divided; the Denominator indicates the kind of note which will fill each beat. Thus, % shows that there are three beats in the measure, and that a quarter note will fill each beat.
17. The limits or boundaries of Measures, as has been said, are marked by light vertical lines, called Bars, the end of a Part being marked by a heavy vertical line, or Double Bar.
18. The end of a line of poetry in hymnal music is also sometimes indicated by a heavy vertical line, or Double Bar, which can have no effect upon the measure.
19. The end of a piece of music is indicated by a character called a Close.
20. Beating Time is designating each part of a Measure by a motion of the hand. In Double Measure, the hand moves down, up; Triple Measure, down, left, up; Quadruple Measure, down, left, right, up ; Sextuple Measure^it»w«, left, left, right, up, up ; or in rapid movement, down, up. This may vary according to the taste of the instructor, each having his own method of indicating accent.
21. Counting Time is designating each part of a Measure by a number. In Double Measure, we count one, two; Triple Measure, one, two, three; Quadruple Measure, one, two, three, four; Sextuple Measure, one, two, three, four, five, six ; ox one, two. The exercises of beating and counting time are very valuable, and should be practiced frequently. Beating time requires motions of the hand at exactly equal points of time; counting time requires counts at exactly equal points of time. It is common to speak of tones " as so many beats long," or * so many counts long." When the leader tells which way the hand is moving, he is said to be describing the time. Select melodies from the book for the purpose of affording variety of practice. Let the class be divided into parts, singing and counting or beating time alternately. Ability to count inaudibly should be acquired as soon as possible, for this is essential to success.
22. Accent is a stress given to certain parts of the Measure. In Double Measure, the first part is accented; in Triple Measure, the first part; in Quadruple Measure, ihe first and third parts; in Sextuple Measure, the first and fourth parts. In measures containing two accents, the first is the principal and therefore louder. The accents may fall away when followed by a rest, and may be changed when followed by a longer note, this note receiving the accent and being therefore called a Syncopated note. These rules are, however, becoming somewhat obsolete in vocal music, the accented syllables and emphatic words determining the parts to be accented.
23. A Syncopated Note, then, is one that begins on an unaccented part of a measure and continues on an accented part. Thus, in j the
second is a Syncopated Note, or a Syncope, and should always be accented, that is, expressed forcibly, as if so marked.
24. The length of the beats in each Measure is
MELODICS: Pitch of Tones.
25. The Staff is used to represent the relative pitch of Tones. It consists of five lines and four spaces, each line and space being called a degree. Thus the staff contains nine degreos and the sentence. " Name the degrees on which these notes are found," means " Name the lines and spaces on which these notes are found."
26. Added lines are used to represent tones which are too high or too low to be represented upon the Staff. They may be placed above and below the staff to any extent desired, as they are simply a continuation of the staff, the note immediately above or below the Staff being in a Space.
27. The lines and spaces of the Staff are named from the lowest upwards, ist line, ist space, 2d line, 2d space, etc.
28. The added lines and spaces are named from the first line, space below, ist line below, etc.; and from the fifth line, space above, ist line above, etc.
2d space above.