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132 Extempore Playing
them over and over again, with a change of superstructure at each repetition. For the sake of variety, the given bass may occasionally be used in a higher part. The motive should be short, usually a few notes of the rising or falling scale. •
(3) The Rondo, as its name implies, consists of a theme first announced, a departure to a second theme, a return to the first, a second departure, and a final return. There are many and various forms and developments of the rondo, from the simple variety to the elaborate movements of Beethoven and Brahms. The keyboard student will aim only at the simple kind. This may be experimented with by taking a well-known tune as the first theme, and depending upon the inspiration of the moment for the contrasting sections. The whole will then appear:
Theme A—Theme B—Theme A—Theme C—Theme A— followed by codetta.
The original theme will appear invariably in the tonic key; the second and third in contrasting keys—the second probably in the dominant of a major key, or the relative of a minor one; the third will be in the subdominant.
(4) The fantasia is a movement in free style, with no definite, set design. This makes it perhaps more difficult to compose with success, as there is little to guide the student. It is practically a series of kaleidoscopic tone-pictures, each having some bearing upon its neighbours, but at the same time holding an independent place. The student may use well-known themes, and develop and arrange them as his taste suggests.
(a) Take a well-known tune, perhaps patriotic or popular; play it over in its simple form; then invent variations on some or all of the plans mentioned above.
(b) Take a succession of from four to six bass tones in slow tempo, ending with the dominant. Use these as a ground bass, playing above them as many interesting