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40 Lessons in how to correctly play improvisations.

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LESSON XXX Unifying Devices
In the last lesson we touched upon the emotional side of musical material. It will be well, however, for the student to give more attention to the intellectual side of his work. If this is thoroughly mastered, the other is certain to follow without special effort. Far from the one excluding the other, it is remarkable that the composer who is most renowned for depth of emotion is also most conspicuous for inexhaustible interest on the intellectual side of his workówe refer, of course, to Beethoven.
Unity in melodic device is achieved by reproduction of material, and by its logical development. There are various devices in use, which may be classified thus:
(a)   Repetitions,
(b)   Sequences,
(c)   Opposite construction,
(d)   Reproduction of characteristics.
All of these may be variously used, applied to groups within the measure, to whole measures, to two-measure sections, to four-measure phrases, or even to longer portions.
(a) Repetitions may be exact or with variations. These latter may be divided into (i) alteration of un≠essential details, or (2) change of size in intervals; e.g.,
Half a measure, exact:
A whole measure, exact: 115
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