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Melody: Fundamentals                         61
of tones. In both must be displayed the influence of
unity, and variety,
or else the result will be futility.
To commence with outline; in progressing along the melodic line there are three possible courses to be taken:
(i) Repetitions,
(2)   Scale-steps, up or down,
(3)   Chord-lines, up or down.
These, separately or in combination, produce a musical line which may be compared with a line in drawing, e.g.,
If the melodic curve looks interesting and graceful to the eye we may safely assume that it will sound corre­spondingly.
(1) Now to take our first heading, repetitions.—How many times may the same note be repeated in melody? Answer;—Any number within reason; it is for the composer to judge. But it should be noted that repetition is a highly valuable device, by no means to be overlooked; e.g.,
(2) Scale-steps should be considered in connection with the cadence. Generally speaking, all melodies end with a cadence, i.e., the progression V-I with the soprano taking the keynote, and approaching it by step. There is a con­tinuous urging on until the cadence is reached—then there is rest. The keynote and its own chord may therefore be termed the note and chord of rest. All tones outside these
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