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The Auxiliary Note and the Passing-Note
The auxiliary, or 'neighbour,' is introduced on the principle that any tone may temporarily wander to the note 'next door' and return to its original place without disturbing the impression of the chord that is in use.
This new note is regarded as a substitute for, or em-bellishment of, its principal. In general, any single note of a chord may be treated in this way, or two, three or four notes at once. The possible varieties are very great. Here are a few:
It will be noticed that in some cases the combined movements form new chords. This does not alter the fact that we are dealing with 'neighbours,' and the harmonic combinations should be regarded as accidental results of the motion. This is the natural way of looking at the matter, and facilitates the work of the student.
The next step in logical development is that of elision. The neighbour, after being taken, need not return to its principal. The return is taken for granted, and the part progresses by leap into the next chord, e.g.
These are best progressing downwards and without wider leaps than a third, although cases are to be found where this is otherwise.
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E-Book - An Annotated Compendium of Old Time American Songs by James Alverson III