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304 The National Music of America.
ideal of orchestral performance could be attained ; in the ranks there were many old musicians who had passed the zenith of their powers, but were kept on for sentimental reasons; these needed to be replaced by stronger performers, young men if possible, who should grow up with the orchestra, and make future changes unnecessary for many years to Come. A new conductor began the fourth season, and set about this necessary but very ungracious task, — Mr. William Gericke. His work began Oct. 18, 1884, and was an excellent example of the " suaviter in modo, fortiter in re " principle, the hand of iron in the glove of velvet. Great was the indignation when the new broom began to sweep! Especially harsh seemed the replacing of the great violinist, the musical pioneer, the leader of the orchestra (concert-meister), — Bernhard Listemann, — by a beardless young Roumanian. After the lapse of years, one can see