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TJte National Music of America. 293
pean culture, and these began to demand a more modern style of programme than the selections from the old masters which were copiously in evidence in the Harvard programmes, and it was suggested, also, that the German style of orchestral ensemble had by no means been attained. The result was that Boston suddenly had two regular orchestras, the Philharmonic Orchestra (a name three times used in Boston's musical history) beginning independently in 1879, and organising into a Philharmonic Society in 1880. The conductorship of this orchestra was held successively by Bernhard Listemann, Louis Maas, and Carl Zerrahn. Orchestral matters were seething in Boston at this time; every music-lover was seized and questioned, — " Under which king, Bezonian ? Speak or die!"
The Harvard Musical Association represented musical conservatism, the Philharmonic Society was identified with radicalism