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The National Music of America. 83
natural to find Richard Talbot in England again, and now on the top wave of prosperity. He was made Earl of Tyrconnel, and afterward still further promoted by James II. Ireland had been in a most discontented state during the English convulsions. In 1641 a rebellion took place, which was accompanied by more than one massacre of Protestants. At one of these the rallying cry of the Irish, by which they might recognise each other in the tumult, is said to have been " Lilliburlero" and " Bullen al-a," which gives the only clue to the strange title of the song. In 1687 Talbot had been lieutenant-general in Ireland, and had distinguished himself by the arbitrary way in which he had treated the Protestants. In October, 1688, James II. made him his full deputy-lieutenant with greater powers than ever before.
All England, and the Protestant part of Ireland, was in a ferment at the injustice